The Development of University–based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems.
Fetters, M., Greene, P., Rice, M., & Butler, J., Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. 2010.
Entrepreneurship and innovation are increasingly viewed as key contributors to global economic and social development. University-based entrepreneurship ecosystems provide a supportive context in which entrepreneurship and innovation can thrive. In that vein, this book provides critical insight based on cutting-edge analyses of how to frame, design, launch, and sustain efforts in the area of entrepreneurship.
An American Story: Mexican American Entrepreneurship and Wealth Creation.
Butler, J., Morales, A., & Torres, D., Ashland, OH: Purdue University Press. 2010.
The development of a capitalist class lies at the heart of political, social and economic power in free
market societies. Mexican American self-employment has been rising at an impressive rate;
however, the size and quality of these businesses are disproportionately lower than in the
mainstream economy. In this paper, we examine characteristics of Mexican-ancestry business
owners in three ways. First, we compare labors force characteristics of this group with other Latinos
-- Cubans, Puerto Ricans and Central/South Americans. Second, we compare labor force
characteristics of the self-employed with salaried workers in the public and private sectors. Finally,
we analyze our findings for two time periods – 2000 and 2007. Our goal is to shed light on the
following question –“Are there significant statistical patterns that shed light on the question of
whether Mexican American participation in self-employment is likely to lead to substantial wealth
creation for the group? An ancillary question is, “Where are the “best and brightest” Latinos
finding the greatest number of professional and monetary rewards? This study is one of very few
studies that consider the public, private and self-employed sectors, arguing that Latino participation
in one sector of the economy has important implications for other sectors. The study also uses
national data -- many studies of minority participation in the economy, especially those with a
theoretical orientation, have tended to use smaller, proprietary samples.
Caveat venditor: Trust asymmetries in acquisitions of entrepreneurial firms
Graebner, M., Academy of Management Journal, 52: 435-472. 2009. [Recipient of Academy of Management Journal Best Paper Award for 2009].
I explore the role of trust in acquisitions of entrepreneurial firms, taking a dyadic view that gives equal attention to buyers and sellers. The two parties have asymmetric views regarding whether their counterparts are trustworthy. I outline how these asymmetries emerge, persist, and influence behavior, including tendencies to behave deceptively and to guard against deception. I also find that buyers' and sellers' beliefs concerning whether their counterparts are trustworthy and trusting are often erroneous. I explore the implications of these findings for developing a theory of trust asymmetries and argue that selecting buyers on the basis of trust increases rather than diminishes entrepreneurs' vulnerability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Entrepreneurship as emancipation
Rindova, V., Barry, D., & Ketchen, D., Academy of Management Review, 34: 477- 491. 2009.
We define “entrepreneuring”as efforts to bring about new economic, social, institutional, and cultural environments through the actions of an individual or group of individuals. Thus, we view entrepreneuring as an emancipatory process with broad change potential. This view foregrounds three aspects of entrepreneuring that merit closer attention in future research—seeking autonomy, authoring, and making declarations. We highlight the novel directions for entrepreneurship research suggested by our emancipatory perspective and relate it to the special topic forum articles.
Market watch: Information and availability cascades among the media and investors in the US IPO market
Pollock, T., Rindova, V. & Maggitti, P., Academy of Management Journal, 51: 335-358. 2008. [Recipient of the Thought Leadership Award of the Entrepreneurship Division, Academy of Management Meetings, 2009]
In this study we advance current research on social influence in markets by examining how the recency and availability of information about others' actions within and between different communities influence their allocation of attention and their evaluations. Specifically, we examine how the media and investors allocate attention to and evaluate newly public firms in the days following their initial public offerings (IPOs). Our findings have implications for understanding the fieldwide processes through which the value of new firms is established in markets.
Standing out: How new firms in emerging markets build reputation
Rindova, V., Petkova, A., & Kotha, S., Strategic Organization, 5: 31-70. 2007.
While strategy and organizational researchers increasingly recognize that observers' perceptions and beliefs about firms have a substantive effect on firms' access to resources and performance, the processes through which these perceptions form are not well understood. To address this question, we examined how three new firms - Amazon.com, barnesandnoble.com and CDNow - that entered the emerging e-commerce domain in the mid-1990s built their initial reputations in the media. Given the limited theory and empirical evidence about the process of reputation accumulation by new firms in emerging markets, we used the case study method to develop inductively a model that relates the visible external actions of the three firms to the patterns of media coverage they accumulated. Patterns of media coverage are likely to both reflect and affect the process of reputation accumulation, as the media constitute an influential audience of critics, who first form their own perceptions and opinions, thereby reflecting the process of reputation accumulation, and then disseminate these perceptions and opinions to the public, thereby influencing the perceptions and opinions of other stakeholder audiences. Our analysis indicates that the pattern of market actions of new firms influences the pattern of media coverage they receive in terms of levels (visibility), content (strategic character), tenor (favorability) and distinction (esteem).The observed inter-firm differences in these characteristics of received coverage suggest that reputation may be better understood as a composite construct and that firms' reputational assets may vary in their composition. Our study offers an inductively developed process model that relates the market actions of new firms to the accumulation of the different components of their initial reputations in the media.
Entrepreneurship and Self-Help among Black Americans: A Reconsideration of Race and Economics
Butler, J., Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. 2005.
Since its publication in 1991, Entrepreneurship and Self-Help among Black Americans has become a classic work, influencing the study of entrepreneurship and, more importantly, revitalizing a research tradition that places new ventures at the very center of success for black Americans. This revised edition updates and enhances the work by bringing it into the twenty-first century. John Sibley Butler traces the development of black enterprises and other community organizations among black Americans from before the Civil War to the present. He compares these efforts to other strong traditions of self-help among groups such as Japanese Americans, Jewish Americans, Greek Americans, and exciting new research on the Amish and the Pakistani. He also explores how higher education is already a valued tradition among black self-help groups-such that today their offspring are more likely to be third and fourth generation college graduates. Butler effectively challenges the myth that nothing can be done to salvage America's underclass without a massive infusion of public dollars, and offers a fresh perspective on those community based organizations and individuals who act to solve local social and economic problems.
If You Build It Will They Come: Three Steps to Test and Validate Any Market Opportunity
Adams, R., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 2010.
Know if you'll hit your targets before pulling the trigger on any marketing plan.
More than sixty five percent of new products are commercial failures, and if you compound this with a recession, now more than ever you can't afford to be wrong. In If You Build It Will They Come, business professor and strategy consultant Rob Adams shows you how to make sure you hit your target market before you spend a lot of money. He shows you the fast, systematic and proven approach of performing Market Validation in advance of making a large product investment.
Adams outlines a simple and effective market validation and testing strategy that is proven, giving entrepreneurs and managers the ability to dramatically improve the prospect of product success. He explains how to quickly gather information on competitors, directly interview members of your target market, and figure out what the market really wants to buy, versus what customers say they want. * The steps to quickly understanding the viability of your market * Where to go to gather the information needed to hit the market requirements * How to follow through with the right product launched in the right way * Adams cuts through the fancy terms and expensive market research that gives lots of data but no real product oriented information about usage, pricing, features and competitive forces. In the end you'll produce results on your first release of a far more mature product, shipped in a faster timeframe with features customers will actually use. * This book is for anyone involved with designing, developing and launching new products. Its examples and advice cover everything from the fledgling start-up that needs their first product to work just to survive to the successful Fortune Class company establishing new worldwide markets. Examples cut across all major industrial sectors including consumer, retail, manufacturing, technology, life sciences and services. This book offers the step-based guidance you need to make sure failure is not an option.
Structural homophony or social asymmetry? The formation of alliances by poorly embedded firms
Ahuja, G., Polidoro, F., & Mitchell, W., Strategic Management Journal, 30: 941-958. 2009
Recent research shows that preexisting network structure constrains the formation of new interorganizational alliances. Firms that are poorly embedded in a network structure are less likely than richly embedded firms to form alliances, because they lack informational and reputational benefits. This study examines the types of ties that poorly embedded firms can form to overcome the constraints that their structural positions impose, in turn helping to explain how firms' actions can transform existing network structures. We argue that poorly embedded firms are more likely to participate in ties characterized by social asymmetry than in ties characterized by structural homophily. We analyze the terms of trade that socially asymmetric partners negotiate for alliance governance and discuss how such alliances influence network dynamics. To test our arguments, we use longitudinal data on the alliance activities of 97 global chemical firms from 1979 to 1991.
Playing favorites: The influence of leaders’ inner circle on group processes and performance
Burris, E., Rodgers, M., Mannix, E., Hendron, M., & Oldroyd, J., Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35: 1244-1257. 2009.
Leaders frequently form stronger relationships with certain subordinates moreso than others, creating an inner circle of close friendships and an outer circle of more distant relationships. Three studies examine the effects of inner-circle membership on group dynamics and interpersonal influence in hierarchical teams. Study 1 finds that, compared to outer-circle members, inner-circle members feel safer and participate in the group discussion more, and leaders recognize them as making a greater contribution and allocate a larger bonus to them. Consequently, inner-circle members influence the groups' decisions more, and team decision quality improves when inner-circle members possess expert knowledge. Study 2 finds that leaders attended to and recalled suggestions from their inner circle more regardless of argument strength, suggesting heuristic information processing. Study 3 replicates these findings using intact teams in a large governmental agency. Implications for leadership and group decision making are discussed.
Technological competition and knowledge disclosure: A study of firms’ scientific publications
Polidoro, F., & Theeke, M., Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings., 2009.
Firms have incentives to maintain their knowledge proprietary to protect the value of innovations as a source of competitive advantage. Yet, firms sometimes voluntarily disclose knowledge about their innovations, which may erode competitive advantage. In addressing this tension, this study investigates how the battle for technological dominance affects firms' propensity to disclose knowledge in scientific journals. This study shows that firms' publications in scientific journals, besides helping them access external knowledge to create innovations, as prior research emphasized, are an important arena where they compete to assert the superiority of the innovations that they have already created.
Quitting before leaving: The mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice
Burris, E., Detert, J., & Chiaburu, D., 95: 912-922., 2008.
This research advances understanding of the psychological mechanisms that encourage or dissuade upward, improvement-oriented voice. The authors describe how the loyalty and exit concepts from A. O. Hirschman's (1970) seminal framework reflect an employee's psychological attachment to or detachment from the organization, respectively, and they argue that psychological attachment and detachment should not be considered as separate, alternative options to voice but rather as influences on voice behavior. Findings from 499 managers in the restaurant industry show that psychological detachment (measured as intention to leave) is significantly related to voice and mediates relationships between perceptions of leadership (leader-member exchange and abusive supervision) and voice, whereas psychological attachment (measured as affective commitment) is neither a direct predictor of voice nor a mediator of leadership-voice relationships.
When is a new thing a good thing? Technological change, product form design, and perceptions of value for product innovations
Rindova, V., & Petkova, A., Organization Science, 18: 217-232, 2007.
Innovation researchers recognize that the uncertainty with regard to the value-creating potential of product innovations increases with their technological novelty, and have argued that the usefulness and value of novel products are socially constructed. Despite this recognition, researchers have not explored how the outer form in which a technological innovation is embodied influences the processes through which the innovation’s value is constructed and perceived. In this paper we argue that by embodying novel technologies in objects with specific functional, symbolic, and aesthetic properties, innovating firms also endow their products with cues that trigger a variety of cognitive and emotional responses. Drawing on psychological research we articulate how such cognitive and emotional responses underlie initial perceptions of value and theorize how innovating firms can influence them through product form design. Our framework explains how product form contributes to perceptions of value by modulating the actual technological novelty of a product innovation and facilitating how customers cope with it. Our theoretical framework makes an important contribution to innovation research and practice because it articulates how product form can be used strategically to achieve specific cognitive and emotional effects and enhance the initial customer perceptions of the value of an innovation.
Leadership influences on employee voice behavior: Is the door really open?
Detert, J., & Burris, E., Academy of Management Journal, 50: 869-884, 2007.
We investigate the relationships between two types of change-oriented leadership (transformational leadership and managerial openness) and subordinate improvement-oriented voice in a two-phase study. Findings from 3,149 employees and 223 managers in a restaurant chain indicate that openness is more consistently related to voice, given controls for numerous individual differences in subordinates' personality, satisfaction, and job demography. This relationship is shown to be mediated by subordinate perceptions of psychological safety, illustrating the importance of leaders in subordinate assessments of the risks of speaking up. Also, leadership behaviors have the strongest impact on the voice behavior of the best-performing employees.
Cases in Financial Reporting
Hirst, D., & McAnally, M., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005.
Collection of Financial Accounting cases designed to help students become users of financial reports. Students learn accounting by reading financial statements and by responding to topical questions about those financials. This casebook introduces students to 38 companies and portions of their financial statements. Each case deals with a specific financial accounting topic within the context of one companies's financial statements.